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360 degree videos, also known as immersive video, or immersive videos or spherical videos, are video recordings where a view is recorded in all directions at the same time, filmed with an omnidirectional camera or a collection of cameras.

During normal flat screen playback, the viewer is in control of the viewing direction as a panorama. It can also be reproduced on a screen or projectors arranged on a sphere or some part of a sphere.
360-degree video is usually shot using special multi-camera equipment or using a dedicated camera containing multiple camera lenses embedded in the device and recording overlapping angles simultaneously. Through a method known as video stitching, this separate footage is merged into a spherical piece of video, and the color and contrast of each shot are calibrated to be consistent with the others.

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This process is performed by the camera itself or by specialized software that can analyze common images and audio to synchronize and link the different signals from the camera. Generally, the only area that cannot be seen is the view towards the camera mount.
360-degree video is generally formatted in an equirectangular projection and is monoscopic, with an image directed at both eyes, or stereoscopic, viewed as two separate images directed individually at each eye for a 3D effect.
Due to this projection and stitching, equirectangular video exhibits lower quality in the middle of the image than at the top and bottom. Spherical videos often have a curvilinear perspective with a fisheye effect. Strong barrel distortion often requires rectilinear correction before detection, tracking, or navigation applications.

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Specialized omni-directional cameras and equipment have been developed in order to record 360-degree video, including equipment such as GoPro's Omni and Odyssey (consisting of multiple action cameras installed within a frame), and cameras containing HumanEyes Vuze and Nokia OZO, there have also been dual lens handheld cameras such as the Ricoh Theta S, Samsung Gear 360, Garmin VIRB 360 and Kogeto Dot 360, a panoramic camera lens accessory developed for the iPhone 4, 4S and Samsung Galaxy Nexus.
360-degree videos are generally viewed via personal computers, mobile devices such as smartphones, or dedicated head-mounted displays. Users can scroll through the video by clicking and dragging.
In smartphones, internal sensors such as the gyroscope can also be used to pan the video based on the orientation of the device. Taking advantage of this behavior, stereoscope-style cases for smartphones can be used to view 360-degree videos in an immersive format similar to virtual reality.

The phone's screen is viewed through lenses contained within the case, unlike virtual reality headsets that contain their own dedicated screens.
In March 2015, YouTube launched support for posting and viewing 360-degree videos, with playback on its website and Android mobile apps. Parent company Google also announced that it would collaborate with camera makers to make it easier for creators to upload 360-degree content recorded with their products to YouTube.

However, in 2017, Google and YouTube began promoting an alternative stereoscopic or monoscopic video format known as VR180, which is limited to a 180-degree field of view, but is touted as more accessible to produce than video. 360 degrees, and allowing to maintain a greater depth by not subjecting the video to an equirectangular projection.
Facebook followed suit by adding 360-degree video support in September 2015, and subsequently submitted reference designs for its own well-known 360-degree camera systems. as Facebook Surround 360. Facebook announced in March 2017 that more than 1 million 360-degree videos had been uploaded to Facebook to date. Vimeo also released 360-degree video support in March 2017.

Typically distributed in the form of DIY kits consisting of inexpensive materials and components, Google Cardboard has been recognized for helping make VR more available to the general public and helping drive adoption. . of 360-degree videos by publishers such as leading journalists and media brands.
The use of the term "virtual reality" to describe 360-degree video has been questioned, as virtual reality generally refers to interactive experiences in which the viewer's movements can be tracked to allow real-time interactions within a virtual environment, with orientation and position tracking.

In 360-degree video, viewer locations are fixed, viewers are limited to the angles captured by cameras, and cannot interact with their surroundings. The non-dynamic nature of video also means that playback techniques cannot be used to reduce the risk of motion sickness.


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